Translating Fields on Models¶
olympia.translations app defines a
olympia.translations.models.Translation model, but for the most part, you
shouldn’t have to use that directly. When you want to create a foreign key to
translations table, use
olympia.translations.fields.TranslatedField. This subclasses Django’s
django.db.models.ForeignKey to make it work with our special handling
of translation rows.
A minimal model with translations in addons-server would look like this:
from django.db import models from olympia.amo.models import ModelBase from olympia.translations.fields import TranslatedField, save_signal class MyModel(ModelBase): description = TranslatedField() models.signals.pre_save.connect(save_signal, sender=MyModel, dispatch_uid='mymodel_translations')
How it works behind the scenes¶
As mentioned above, a
TranslatedField is actually a
ForeignKey to the
translations table. However, to support multiple languages, we use a
special feature of MySQL allowing you to have a
ForeignKey pointing to
Our base manager has a
_with_translations() method that is automatically
called when you instanciate a queryset. It does 2 things:
- Stick an extra lang=lang in the query to prevent query caching from returning objects in the wrong language
olympia.translations.transformers.get_trans()which does the black magic.
get_trans() is called, and calls in turn
olympia.translations.transformer.build_query() and builds a custom SQL
query. This query is the heart of the magic. For each field, it setups a join
on the translations table, trying to find a translation in the current language
olympia.translation.get_language()) and then in the language
get_fallback() on the instance (for addons, that’s
default_locale; if the
get_fallback() method doesn’t exist, it will
settings.LANGUAGE_CODE, which should be
en-US in addons-server).
Only those 2 languages are considered, and a double join +
done every time, for each field.
This query is then ran on the slave (
get_trans() gets a cursor using
connections[multidb.get_slave()]) to fetch the translations, and some
Translation objects are instantiated from the results and set on the
instance(s) of the original query.
To complete the mechanism,
TranslationDescriptor.__get__ returns the
Translations.__unicode__ returns the translated string
as you’d expect, making the whole thing transparent.
Everytime you set a translated field to a string value,
__set__ method is called. It determines which
method to call (because you can also assign a dict with multiple translations
in multiple languages at the same time). In this case, it calls
translation_from_string() method, still on the “hidden”
TranslationDescriptor instance. The current language is passed at this
translation_from_string() figures out whether it’s a new
translation of a field we had no translation for, a new translation of a
field we already had but in a new language, or an update to an existing
It instantiates a new
Translation object with the correct values if
necessary, or just updates the correct one. It then places that object in a
queue of Translation instances to be saved later.
When you eventually call
pre_save signal is sent. If
you followed the example above, that means
olympia.translations.fields.save_signal is then called, and it unqueues all
Translation objects and saves them. It’s important to do this on
to prevent foreign key constraint errors.
Deleting all translations for a field is done using
olympia.translations.models.delete_translation(). It sets the field to
NULL and then deletes all the attached translations.
Deleting a specific translation (like a translation in spanish, but keeping the english one intact) is implemented but not recommended at the moment. The reason why is twofold:
- MySQL doesn’t let you delete something that still has a FK pointing to it,
even if there are other rows that match the FK. When you call
delete()on a translation, if it was the last translation for that field, we set the FK to
NULLand delete the translation normally. However, if there were any other translations, instead we temporarily disable the constraints to let you delete just the one you want.
- Remember how fetching works? If you deleted a translation that is part of
the fallback, then when you fetch that object, depending on your locale
you’ll get an empty string for that field, even if there are
Translationobjects in other languages available!
For additional discussion on this topic, see https://bugzilla.mozilla.org/show_bug.cgi?id=902435
Ordering by a translated field¶
olympia.translations.query.order_by_translation allows you to order a
QuerySet by a translated field, honoring the current and fallback locales
like it’s done when querying.